- "The Way Things are Done..."
- "Beliefs and Values."
- "Traditions and History."
- "Religion." Therefore after the lecture I decided to research the actual meaning of culture to compare them with, what we as students believe it is. Here are some definitions:
1) I believe that the easiest definition of Culture is "the values, ethics, rituals, traditions, material objects and services produced or valued by members of the society." (Solomon et al., 2010). However the other definitions found were:
2) Roshan-institure (2011) states that culture refers to different ways of Life including; language, arts and sciences, thought, spirituality, social activity and interaction. Apparently the combination of the above define the meaning of culture
3) Using thefreedictionary.com (2011) they define culture as being "the totality of socially transmitted behaviour patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought."
This shows that as a group, we were able to clearly identify what culture was. However the next step was to consider culture in terms of marketing. Culture is important to marketers as many believe that a culture of a person is a learned behaviour, which ultimately leads to consumer buyer decisions based on this cultural behaviour. According to businessweek (2011) cultural marketing is a way a brand, product or advertising message caters to a specific cultural group. It is explained that increasing amounts of businesses are using cultural marketing to grab the attention of specific demographic groups.
As culture plays a huge part in consumer buyer behaviour, marketers need to take this into consideration when they begin international marketing into a different countries market. The Terpstra and Sarathy Cultural Framework shown right, is used by marketing managers to asses the cultural nature of an international market. It includes eight different categories that need to be considered, but these all change specifically to different countries. These are used so that the right people are targeted and that correct marketing techniques are executed. If this is done correctly a product can be sold successfully in an international country and a brand can gain
international respect. The eight different categories a marketers need to consider when creating advertising campaigns for different cultures are as followed:
1) Language - Hall and Hall 1986 believe that when considering wording within an advert they firstly need to understand whether or not the national culture is mostly a high context culture or a low context culture. In a High context culture a verbal communication will not tend to carry a direct message, therefore in these cultures, hidden cultural meaning needs to be considered. This includes Japan. A low context culture spoken language carries emphasis of the communication this is usually within Australia and the Netherlands.
2) Religion - An organisation needs to make sure that their products and services are not distasteful, offensive or unlawful to a specific nation and culture, therefore religion needs to be considered in the promotion and branding. According to marketingteacher (2011) in 2007 China banned all advertising which included pigs, as it was the year of the pig. This was done to maintain harmony with the Muslims of the country.
3) Values and Attitudes - These changed due to different nations, so therefore marketers need to seriously consider this when taking a product overseas. This may include changing promotional material or branding messages. in 2004 china banned a Nike television advert because they believed the ad insulted the Chinese national dignity. Below is the advert:
4) Education - The level of education in different cultures will vary. This impacts the type of message or even the marketing communications used within that nation. For example in low literacy levels, advertisers would avoid communications which are written and would rather use a radio advertisement, with an audio message or visuals such as posters. Whereas different types of campaigns can be used in the UK as there are many different literacy levels of people in this country.
5) Social Organisations - This element relates to how a national society is organised. Marketers will need to understand the role of women in a society, how a country is governed and the level influence of class or casts upon a society.
6) Technology and Material Culture - Marketers will need to consider how advanced technologies are in different countries. When offering a product to a country they need to consider things like if there is energy to power the product, if there is transport to distribute the goods to the consumers, how quickly does technology evolve and most importantly do the consumers actually buy materialistic products. A goo example of this is when Trevor Baylis launched the clockwork radio in the African Market. This was a huge success due to batteries in Africa being expensive and power supplies were non-existent in rural areas.
7) Law and Politics - The political views and laws a nation has will affect the way a marketer will advertise or promote a product. They will need to be make sure they are unoffensive and are obeying the laws of a country. The UK is largely market-driven and has a democratic society which has laws based upon precedent and legislation. However a country like Iran has a political and legal system which is based mainly round teachings and principle of Islam and a Sharia tradition.
8) Aesthics - This relates to a persons senses, and the appreciation of the artistic nature of something, including the smell, taste and ambiance. This changes due to a persons culture as someone may view something as beautiful whereas a person from a different culture may not agree.
During the lesson we were assigned a country to look at their culture. The country we were assigned was Italy and this is what we discovered...
Lee Evans... UK Humour
Roberto Bengini... Italian Humour